pasta can generally be divided into two categories; dried pasta, which refers to all the pasta normally bought in packs such as spaghetti and penne etc. dried pasta, if italian is almost always invariably made with hard grain durum wheat. for climactic reasons of production it has historically been produced and consumed more in the south of italy with the exception of liguria.
fresh pasta on the other hand generally refers to pasta made with soft wheat flour ("00" or all purpose) and eggs.
the simple proportion:
100 gr (3.5 oz or 4/5 cup) of flour - 1 egg
That in the end, is all you need to make fresh egg pasta. make a mound of pasta. make a dent in the peak (it now looks like a volcano), drop the egg, and with a fork (or your fingers!) begin combining egg and flour. after enough flour has been incorporated into the egg (it will no longer spill) you can begin to knead the rest of the flour into the egg. continue kneading until you have a homogeneous mass that is silky not grainy to touch. let rest in the fridge. Overnight is ideal. especially if rolling by hand. it is less important if using a pasta roller machine. (30 min should be sufficient, but you can make a quick check, if the pasta keeps pulling together when rolling it out, it needs to rest more.) roll out pasta to required thickness. on the machine i would generally say that means the last or second to last thickness for filled pastas such as ravioli and second to last or even one thicker for cut pastas such as tagliatelle, fettuccine, lasagna sheets etc. Depending on the thickness you have to fiddle a little with the cooking time, but fresh egg pasta cooking times tend to be shorter than fresh pasta. that said the egg also insures that the bite remains, even if the pasta cooks a little longer than necessary.
that of course can all be changed up. i prefer using 50 % hard wheat durum semolina flour and 50 % soft wheat flour. or even 100% durum flour. you can try to add more eggs for more bite. one chef once told me that while he would never use normal fresh egg pasta with sea food (generally as well as traditionally mixing sea proteins with land proteins is a no no.) he has found that if using only egg whites in the fresh pasta it made a good pairing with seafood based sauces. you can of course also make fresh pasta just with water! don't dry, and cook immediately (or freeze).
fresh pasta has a longer history in the center and the north. especially the region of emilia-romagna (bologna) is known for its long tradition of fresh egg pasta. it is no surprise that the region, often foggy, as it is for the most part located in a river valley basin, traditionally had problems drying pasta. while the port town of gragnano, outside naples, well known for its long tradition of making dry pasta, has particularly ideal natural conditions for drying pasta. hot yet breezy. ironic then that the main barilla headquarters is smack in the middle of the foggy padano valley basin in emilia-romagna. but for that we have mussolini to thank, which is another story, for another day!